Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters - vol. XII - n° 2 - June 1999INTERNATIONAL ABSTRACTS
This article considers
two types of self-inflicted burns: those caused by suicide attempts and those caused by
self-mutilating behaviour. Such burns represent a small but consistent percentage of
admissions to burns centres around the world. The medical records of all patients admitted
to the Royal Brisbane Hospital Burns Unit (Australia) and identified as having suffered a
self-inflicted burn wound between 1990 and 1995 were reviewed. Patients who covered
themselves with a flammable liquid between 1984 and 1995 were also reviewed, in a separate
group. Of the 1072 admissions, 44 cases (4. 1 %) were related to deliberately
self-inflicted burns. The suicide attempters were nearly all male and the majority (60%)
presented a major psychiatric illness. The self-mutilators suffered less serious burns,
and none died. The phenomenon of "copycaC suicides is considered: when the media give
too much publicity to spectacular suicide attempts, other persons may be tempted to
Cameron DR., Pegg S.P., Miller
BURNS OF THE HAND AND
UPPER LIMB - A REVIEW
Smith M.A., Munster A.M., Spence R.J.
Child abuse by burning contributes significantly to non-accidental injury. This retrospective review examines 507 consecutive admissions to a burns centre in Australia over a 3-year period, with a view to assessing the characteristics of the burn injury in order to assess which characteristics, if any, might help to distinguish accidental burns from burns due to abuse or neglect. It was found that 86% of admissions could be classified as "accidents". Eight per cent were considered to be due to abuse or neglect, and in 6% of the cases it was found that the family's emotional or social situation was involved. Children injured non-accidentally were found to be more likely to require skin grafting and intensive care unit treatment. They were also more likely to come from one-patient families and to have burns in both hands or both legs. It appears from the statistics presented that many children who suffer non-accidental burns have a history of other types of abuse or neglect. Andronicus M., Oates R.K., Peat J., Spalding S., Martin H.
Burns, 24: 552-8, 1998.
BURNS: THE IMPACT AND SEVERITY. A RETROSPECTIVE REVIEW OF 107 PATIENTS
Phillips B.J., Kassir A., Anderson
B., Schiller W.R.
Respiratory insufficiency is an important cause of death in children who have suffered smoke inhalation and burns. To combat this condition, conventional ventilation is not always able to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation, to achieve which a possible, though little used, method is extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This method has proved its usefulness in severe neonatal respiratory failure, and has also been used successfully in children and adults. Two cases are presented of children who developed severe breathing problems that did not respond to maximal ventilation. The patients were treated with veno-venous ECMO for 72 h and 144 h respectively, and both made a full recovery.
O'Toole G., Peek J., Jaffe W., Ward
D., Henderson H., Firmin
The burns centre where the authors of this article work is situated in the vicinity of a major factory that produces bromine, with the result that the commonest cause of all chemical burns seen at the centre, in Israel, is related to bromine injury. The parameters of bromine injury were studied in vitro with the use of full-thickness human skin (ITS) specimens obtained during various surgical procedures. The damage was considerable in both the epidermis and the dermis. A decreased viability of epidermal cells was also observed. The permeation parameters of bromine via abdominal HS were calculated by quantitating bromine concentration in the donor and receiving compartments. The quantity of bromine permeating bromine was inversely related to the concentration gradient applied. It would appear on the basis of this study that prompt treatment and early medical intervention may be necessary for the successful healing of both mild and severe cases of burning injury.
Eliaz M., Grossman
N., Katz S., Zur-Maschiach R., Grunwald M.H., Reuveni H., Rosenberg L., Kost J.
A STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL
VIABILITY AND METABOLIC DEGENERATION OF HUMAN SKIN STORED AT 4 °C
Chang P., Rosenquist M.D., Lewis R.W.
11, Kealey G.P.
MASSIVE CALVARIAN EXPOSURE IN YOUNG CHILDREN
Sheridan R.L., Choucair RT, Donelan
THE USE W SHEET
AUTOGRAFTS TO COVER EXTENSIVE BURNS IN PATIENTS
Archer S.F., Henke A., Greenhalgh
D.G., Warden G.W.
It is difficult to predict pigmentation changes after superficial burn injuries. This article analyses a sample of patients with burn injuries, in an attempt to establish clinical indicators of predictable colour changes in burn wounds. A sample of 50 children, mainly with pigmented skin;, who had sustained partial-thickness burns were included in the study. Chemical and electric burns, as well as those requiring skin graftings, were excluded. The skin colour was graded according to the Fitzpatrick scale. The burn site and some unburned areas of control skin were tested for reflectance and luminance. During the first three years of the study, burn site colour changes were variable, but later there was cumulative hyperpigmentation at the burn site, but only if the melanocyte-bearing deep dermis had not been destroyed. There was a significant correlation between hyperpigmentation and skin colour, as quantified by the Fitzpatrick scale (p < 0.01), and between hyperp gmentation and time after injury (p < 0.05).
de Chalain T.M.B., Tang C., Thomson