% vol = 16 number = 2 nextlink = 111 prevlink = 107 titolo = "INTERNATIONAL ABSTRACTS" volromano = "XVI" data_pubblicazione = "June 2003" header titolo %>
A study was made of the effects and mechanisms of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary hypertension in a canine model of smoke inhalation injury. Randomly composed groups of dogs were divided into three groups: four dogs made up the normal control group, eight dogs subjected to smoke inhalation followed by O2 inhalation (FiO2 = 0.45) constituted the injury control group, and nine dogs that inhaled a mixture O2 and 45 ppm nitric oxide after smoke exposure acted as the treatment group. It was found that the levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in arterial plasma in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group 5, 8, and 12 h after exposure to smoke, while levels of cGMP in lung tissue were also significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.01). The levels of cGMP in the injury control group were significantly reduced compared with normal controls (p < 0.05). Pulmonary vasoconstriction after smoke inhalation was significantly attenuated by inhalation of NO (p < 0.05), which did not have any apparent effect on the systemic circulation (p > 0.05). NO inhalation may lower pulmonary hypertension induced by smoke inhalation injury in dogs. The selective effect of NO on pulmonary circulation could be due to an increased level of cGMP in smooth muscle cells of lung tissue after NO inhalation.
Qi Shun-Zhen, Zhao Hong-Hang
Burns, 28: 299-304, 2002
A rat model of 30% burns was prepared in order to study the functional significance of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 having anti-oxidant activity in burns. The animals’ lungs and livers were extirpated for immunohistological examination (indirect immunoenzyme techniques). Plasma TNF-· levels were significantly higher in the burn group than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in total bilirubin levels between the groups. HO-1 expression was found histologically in the perivascular cells of the lung and liver. It was also found, albeit at low levels, in liver parenchymal cells. These findings suggest that HO-1 is expressed in the lung and liver tissues in a rat burn model.
Hajime Nakae, Hideo Inaba
Burns, 28: 305-9, 2002
Reduced bone formation and bone loss have been reported in patients following burn injury. Urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) is accepted as a marker of collagen breakdown activity. In the light of observations that calcitonin (CT) diminishes bone resorption and that growth hormone (GH) increases bone formation and density in GH-deficient patients, a study was conducted to investigate the short-term effects of CT and GH on urinary DPD levels in burn patients. The urinary DPD levels of 30 severely burned were investigated for 3 days after hospitalization. The patients were then divided into three groups of 10 patients each. In the CT group, CT 100 U was injected subcutaneously daily for 5 days. In the GH group, GH 0.1 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously three times in a week. In the control group, isotonic saline solution 0.1 mg/kg was injected subcutaneously three times in a week. In all the groups, following the last dose of the agents, urinary DPD levels were monitored for 3 days. There was no significant difference in mean burn size and age between the groups. The urinary DPD level obtained in the early period was 16.5 ± 3.1 nM in the CT group, 10.4 ± 5.3 nM in the GH group, and 18.6 ± 2.7 nM in the control group. No statistical differences were observed between the groups (p > 0.5, for all). The urinary DPD level obtained in the late period was 4.5 ± 1.0 nM in the CT group, 14.4 ± 5.9 nM in the GH group, and 36.6 ± 2.1 nM in the control group. The differences between the CT group and the control group, the CT group and the GH group, and the GH group and the control group were statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). Comparing early and late urinary DPD levels, a significant decrease was observed only in the CT group (p < 0.001; z = 6.5). In the other two groups, DPD levels increased in the late period. It is concluded that GH is not effective in decreasing urinary DPD levels. CT, on the contrary, was found to be very effective in decreasing urinary DPD levels, and this decrease may be associated with diminished bone loss.
Akçay M.N., Akçay G., Yilmaz I.
Burns, 28: 311-3, 2002
In view of preliminary experiments indicating that target cells were resistant to glucocorticoid (GC) following pathological stress, a study was designed to investigate alterations in the plasma corticosterone level and GC receptor (GR) of liver cytosols, to assess the relative inflammatory cytokine contribution to GC resistance, and to observe the action of ·-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (·-MSH) on the potential implications of glucocorticoid regulatory effects in burned rats. Male Wistar rats received a 35% TBSA immersion scald and were randomly divided to receive either tumour necrosis factor · (TNF·), interleukin-1‚ (IL-1‚), polyclonal antibody (pAb), ·-MSH, Ac-D-Lys-L-Pro-D-Val (KPV peptide), or saline (control). The binding capacity (Rt) of the steroid-binding sites was measured by radioligand binding assay, using [3H] dexamethasone as the ligand. The plasma levels were examined of IL-1‚, TNF·, IL-10, and corticosterone following scald challenge to rats. The Rt of GR in hepatic cytosol in rats, 12 h after the scald, was significantly lower than that of the control group (p < 0.01). Injections of anti-rat TNF·, IL-1‚ antibody, ·-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and KPV peptide might prevent the Rt of GR from decreasing in hepatic cytosols of rats with scald, respectively (all of p < 0.05) in vivo. Scalding induced robust increases in plasma IL-1‚, TNF·, IL-10, and corticosterone level after 12 h. The administration of TNF·, IL-1‚ pAb, ·-MSH, and KPV may attenuate such increases. These studies suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the downregulation of GRs. Thus ·-MSH and KPV may increase the level of GR in rats with immersion scalds.
Du-hu Liu, Yong-ping Su, Wei Zhang, Shu-fen Lou, Xin-ze Ran, Jing-sheng Gao, Tian-min Cheng
Burns, 28: 315-20, 2002
This paper reports experiences in lower leg and foot reconstruction with distally-based neurocutaneous flaps in electrical burns. Such flaps have been used successfully in the reconstruction of the lower extremity for some decades. The reconstruction of deep wounds that expose tendons, bones, and/or vessels in electrical burns involves flap coverage. As there is often some subclinical vascular damage in electrical burn injuries, an important part of the procedure is a modification in order to improve flap viability during the reconstruction of electrical burn wounds. The use of distally-based sural and saphenous neurocutaneous flaps for the coverage of defects in the lower leg and foot in 14 electrical burn patients is described. In 12 patients, the flaps survived completely, while in two patients the flaps underwent partial necrosis. In these cases, the width of the pedicle of the neurocutaneous flap was increased from 3.5 to 5 cm, and the neurovenous pedicle was decreased to give a delay effect several days before flap harvesting. These modifications positively affected the viability of the flap and their use is recommended in order to improve neurocutaneous flap circulation in high-risk patients.
Yildirim S., Akan M., Giderog×lu K., Akýoz T.
Burns, 28: 379-85, 2002
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a particularly worrying pathogen in an intensive care unit, as burn units are very susceptible to colonization and infection by this particular organism. This paper describes the isolation of two different clones of MRSA in a burns intensive care unit in Palermo, Italy. Some characteristic epidemiological features of MRSA in burns intensive care wards are confirmed.
Torregrossa M.V., Cannova L., Sucameli M., Cucchiara P., Masellis M., Mammina C.S.
Ann. Ig., 15: 197-110, 2003
Despite important breakthroughs in the treatment of eye burns, chemical burns of the cornea still present serious problems. The most effective treatment is early and prolonged lavage of the eye and its adnexa. Eye burns may cause irreversible damage to the surface of the eye and ultimately lead to blindness. Chemical burns are the most frequent and also the most worrying of such burns because of the possible spread of the damage to the intraocular structures. The eyelids constitute a protective barrier against thermic aggression but in the presence of chemical substances the cornea can be damaged before the eyelids are closed. Such cases represent 6.4% of consultations in an ophthalmological emergency centre in Bicętre (France).
Brűlures, 4: 9-16, 2003-06-24
Face and hand burns affect visible parts of the body that play an important role in communication and relationships with the outside world. Children and adolescents do not react in identical fashion to burns or to the way these are regarded. The requirements of burn care and the use of necessary equipment have different effects at different ages. Such young patients require specific educational training that will eventually enable them to come to terms with their post-burn condition.
Buosi M., Roques C.
Brűlures, 4: 17-22, 2003
Short-term hospitalization of the patient means hospitalization for one day, and medical treatment with general anaesthesia or without anaesthesia. This paper considers this particular form of hospitalization and the treatment involved - dressings, minor surgical interventions (grafts, excisions-grafts). A description is given of a routine day in the hospital. The particular psychological and financial advantages of this type of hospitalization are compared with its drawbacks - notably the increased workload.
Ledieu M., Bachelet L., Coquelle F., Krefta L., Mathieu M-D., Frediani A., De Broucker V., Pellerin P.
Brűlures, 4: 25-28, 2003
Burn patients frequently suffer complications in the digestive system: paralytic ileus, constipation, diarrhoea, digestive haemorrhage, intestinal ischaemia, and, in rare cases, perforation of the digestive system. Intestinal ischaemia may occur during episodes of arterial hypotension sepsis. A case is presented of perforation of the colon in a burn patient.
Pham J. Hamadi E., Zakine G., Picovski D., Lioret N., Mimoun M.
Brűlures, 4: 31-35, 2003