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Volume XXV

Number 2

June 2012

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Summaries

59 ACUTE BURN RESUSCITATION AND FLUID CREEP: IT IS TIME FOR COLLOID REHABILITATION
(Atiyeh B.S., Dibo S.A., Ibrahim A.E., Zgheib E.R. - Lebanon)
Fluid overloading has become a global phenomenon in acute burn care. The consensus Parkland formula that has excluded colloid use, the impact of goal-directed resuscitation, and the overzealous on the scene crystalloid resuscitation combined with subsequent inefficient titration of fluid administration and lack of timely reduction of infusion rates, have all contributed to this phenomenon of fluid overloading, known as fluid creep and recognized only recently, constituting a landmine in modern burn care. Solid evidence is supportive to the fact that excessive administration of crystalloid and the abandonment of colloid replenishment at some point of resuscitation are the major contributors to fluid creep. With available evidence from the literature, the present is a comprehensive review of literature about fluid creep, trying to determine the etiology behind it as well as to propose strategies to control its magnitude and complications, namely through colloid administration amongst other options.
66 THE EFFICACY OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN ACTIVATED PROTEIN C (rhAPC) vs ANTITHROMBIN III (AT III) vs HEPARIN, IN THE HEALING PROCESS OF PARTIAL-THICKNESS BURNS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY
(Kritikos O., Tsagarakis M., Tsoutsos D., Kittas C., Gorgoulis V., Papalois A., Giannopoulos A., Kakiopoulos G., Papadopoulos O. - Greece)
This is an experimental study regarding the positive effect of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) in the healing process of partial-thickness burns, in comparison to antithrombin III and heparin. On a porcine model we induced superficial partial-thickness and deep partial-thickness burns and performed intravenous administration of the elements of study during the first 48 h. The progress of the condition of the injured tissues was evaluated by histopathological examination at specific time intervals. The results showed an improved healing response of the specimens treated with rhAPC compared to those treated with antithrombin III, heparin, and placebo.
74 KPC-PRODUCER GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA AMONG BURNED INFANTS IN MOTAHARI HOSPITAL, TEHRAN: FIRST REPORT FROM IRAN
(Azimi L., Rastegar Lari A., Alaghehbandan R., Alinejad F., Mohammadpoor M., Rahbar M. - Iran)
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase (KPC) among burn infants in Iran. The objective of this study was to determine the phenotypic detection of these KPC among isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella spp. A cross-sectional study was performed (February to September 2011) at a tertiary burn hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sixty-four strains were isolated from 20 patients. Strain and genus of isolates were confirmed, antibiotic susceptibility testing was implemented, and KPC determined by Modified Hodge Test. Fifteen of 36 strains (six Pseudomonas aeruginosa, six Acinetobacter baumannii, and three Klebsiella pneumoniae) were resistant to imipenem. Ten strains of 36 Gram negative isolates were resistant to all tested antibiotics except for Colistin. Thirteen of 15 resistant imipenem strains were confirmed as KPC-producer bacteria that isolated from nine patients. Six of 36 isolated strains were extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, of which four strains were both KPC and ESBL. A high percentage of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in our centre with positive KPC have created a major challenge in terms of mortality and morbidity. The findings of this study highlight the importance of implementing an effective infection control strategy to prevent and decrease the prevalence of KPC-producing organisms.
78 PHENOTYPIC SCREENING OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM -LACTAMASE AND METALLO--LACTAMASE IN MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA FROM INFECTED BURNS
(Vahdani M., Azimi L., Asghari B., Bazmi F., Rastegar Lari A. - Iran)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing nosocomial infections, especially in immunocompromised patients such as burn patients. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is potentially resistant to different broad-spectrum antibiotics due to its ability to produce extended-spectrum -lactamase (ESBL) and metallo--lactamase (MBL). In the present 6- month study, 220 strains of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from male and female burn patients who had been hospitalized for at least one week in Motahari Hospital in Tehran. These strains were screened by the disc diffusion and double disc methods to determine the capacity of producing ESBL and MBL. Of all strains, 18% were ESBL-positive, resulting in a significant inhibition zone (=5 mm) with cefotaxime and ceftazidime plus clavulanic acid discs when compared to the plain cefotaxime or ceftazidime discs. 38% of the strains were MBL-positive, showing at least 7 mm difference between the inhibition zone around the imipenem discs alone in comparison with imipenem plus EDTA discs, and at least 5 mm difference between the inhibition zone around imipenem plus EDTA discs and EDTA discs alone. In the light of our results, the rapidly spreading resistance among bacterial populations due to the extensive use of antibiotics is a matter of concern for the optimal treatment of patients, particularly in burn wards, and the determination of ESBL and MBL production of MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains is essential.
82 TREATMENT OF PARTIAL THICKNESS BURNS WITH ZN-HYALURONAN: LESSONS OF A CLINICAL PILOT STUDY
(Juhsz I., Zoltn P., Erdei I. - Hungary)
A clinical investigation to determine the effectiveness of Zn-hyaluronan gel for the treatment of partial thickness burns was carried out. 60 patients were enrolled in the study with an average of 3% TBSA burn. Exudation lasted 3 days, no infectious complications were observed. By day 14 the wounds of 52 patients have healed, average complete healing time was 10,5 days. An overall 93,3% healing rate was achieved within the planned observation period. Reduction of spontaneous and movementrelated pain was reduced to less than half of the initial values by day 5,5 and 6,3 respectively. Development of a thin, elastic, well tolerable and protective membrane-like layer was noted. This kept the wounds moist while clean during wound-healing, and was spontaneously shed as epithelisation proceeded. Zn-hyaluronan gel is a novel topical wound care product that has proven to be suitable for the treatment of partial thickness burns.
86 ANTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY PERFORATOR PLUS FLAPS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF POST-BURN FLEXION CONTRACTURES OF THE KNEE JOINT
(Adhikari S., Bandyopadhyay T., Saha J.K. - India)
Background. Post-burn flexion contractures of the knee may arise even with adequate treatment of the burn injury. After release of the contracture, most of these defects require flap coverage. Here we describe the application of the perforator plus flap concept in the management of these contractures. Method. Between December 2010 and December 2011 five female and two male patients with knee contractures were operated on using a perforator plus flap from the anterior tibia artery perforator. In one patient both sides were operated on and the rest had unilateral surgeries. All patients had mature scars and the aetiology was thermal burn injury. All these contractures were categorized as Category 4 and Level 3 by the ICIDH guidelines with an average contracture angle of 87.5 degrees. The flap was raised after release of the defect and a Doppler study located the perforator below the fibular head. The base of the flap was kept intact at all times. The flap was then transposed towards the defect and inset in a tensionless manner. Results. All flaps survived well with marginal necrosis in only one flap, providing stable coverage to the knee joint. The average residual contracture was around 10 degrees and the average range of flexion was 10-120 degrees. Conclusion. The perforator plus flap can be an excellent choice in defects over the posterior aspect of the knee where important neurovascular structures and tendons are exposed. Level of evidence: Level IV.
92 THE ROLE OF NEGATIVE PRESSURE WOUND THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF FOURTH-DEGREE BURNS. TRENDS AND NEW HORIZONS
(Sahin I., Eski M., Acikel C., Kapaj R., Alhan D., Isik S. - Turkey)
The term "fourth-degree burn" is not very often found in the literature because it is often associated with lethal injury. These injuries are characterized by exposure of viable tissue such as tendon or bone and are associated with challenging wound closure. The goal of reconstruction is to provide adequate soft tissue coverage and restoration of function. Several treatment modalities have been used to serve this purpose. We present four male patients with fourth-degree burns of the extremities, treated with negative pressure wound therapy. The patients' age ranged from 15 to 49 yr (mean, 28 yr). The total body surface area burned ranged from 3 to 60% (mean, 34.25%). Negative pressure wound therapy was applied for 16-30 days (mean, 23.75 days). Three split-thickness skin grafts and one bipedicled local flap were performed. Wound closure was completed in 28 to 50 days. The results were satisfactory for both physicians and patients. Our longest follow-up was three years. The results achieved in this group of patients revealed the negative pressure wound therapy was a reliable alternative method in the treatment of fourthdegree burns.
98 REVERSE TISSUE EXPANSION BY LIPOSUCTION DEFLATION ADOPTED FOR HARVEST OF LARGE SHEET OF FULLTHICKNESS SKIN GRAFT
(Ibrahim A.E., Debbas C.C., Dibo S.A., Atiyeh B.S., Abu-Sittah G.S. - Lebanon)
Full-thickness skingraft is a valid option to release burn scar contractures with the main purpose of correcting the induced limitation in function and improve the disfiguring appearance of the scar. The main pitfall remains the limited availability of these grafts, especially when large sheets are needed. We present an application of a previously described technique known as reverse tissue expansion, which permits the harvesting of a large sheet of full thickness skin graft when needed. This method was adopted to release a burn scar contracture in a 32-yr-old man who sustained a 65% TBSA burn secondary to a gasoline tank explosion at the age of 7 yr followed by multiple reconstructive procedures. The patient presented with a disfiguring anterior neck contracture coupled to limited range of motion. Improvement of neck extension was contemplated using full-thickness skin graft harvested following reverse tissue expansion achieved by deflation liposuction of the donor site.
102 CONTACT RADIATOR BURN SUBSEQUENT TO SPINAL ANAEST
(Sever C., Aysal B.K., Sahin C., Kulahci Y. - Turkey)
An unusual case is reported in which a patient sustained a third-degree burn of the plantar surface of the right foot as the result of contact with a heating radiator. This occurred when the patient fell asleep in his hospital bed after knee surgery. Spinal anaesthesia is easy to perform, and the risk factors, though present, are not serious. Such accidents are not infrequent and care should be taken to prevent them.
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